Here are the basic words/expressions that everyone needs to know. Once they have been mastered, you can focus on the other categories.
Basic Numbers and Days
Here is some more information about numbers and dates/time.
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Grammar Point: Present Tense
The present tense of a verb is formed by dropping the ending of the infinitive (-er, -ir or -re) and using the appropriate present tense ending. For example:
travailler ("to work") > je travaille ("I work"); tu travailles ("you work"); partir ("to leave") > ils partent ("they leave); prendre ("to take") > elle prend ("she takes").
For some common verbs, you need to learn the somewhat unpredictable verb forms:
être ("to be") > Je suis ("I am"); Tu es ("you are")
avoir ("to have") > J'ai ("I have"); Tu as ("you have").
You can find out more about the present tense of verbs here.